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A derivative is a financial contract that derives its value from the underlying traits of an asset, index, or interest rate. There are a variety of blockchain-enabled cryptocurrency derivatives, including synthetic cryptocurrencies and bitcoin futures, which represent agreements to trade bitcoin at a future date at a predetermined price. Delisting may occur when the project no longer fulfills the listing requirements initially set out by the exchange. After an asset is delisted from an exchange, it can no longer be bought and sold on the platform. Generally, a decentralized oracle network refers to a network of decentralized blockchain oracles that provide external data to blockchains or requesting smart contracts. With many different data sources and an oracle system that isn’t controlled by a single entity, DONs provide increased security and transparency to drastically improve smart contract functionality. Curve is a decentralized exchange optimized for low slippage and low fee swaps between assets pegged to the same value. Curve is also an automated market maker that relies on liquidity pools and rewarding those who fund the pools, and deals only in stablecoins. CRV is the governance token of the Curve protocol, and is also used to pay liquidity providers on the platform. They are typically overcollateralized by an underlying cryptocurrency asset to account for crypto price volatility. With cryptocurrency as their underlying collateral, crypto-backed stablecoins are issued on-chain. To obtain a crypto-backed stablecoin, a user locks their cryptocurrency in a smart contract to receive stablecoins. Paying the stablecoins back into the same smart contract allows a user to withdraw their original collateral. Cross-chain communication is a process that allows for communication between different blockchain networks by enabling mutual interaction and value exchange — for example, in the form of token exchange and the sharing of multiple data types. Cronos is the foundational coin that drives’s ecosystem of payment, trading, and financial services. The CRO coin is utilized for on-chain transaction settlement, and to ensure the consensus and security of the platform. CRO is also designed to be used as an incentivization mechanism by providing rewards for users who engage with various services within the ecosystem. A bounty is a reward or series of rewards advertised by a blockchain project to incentivize community participation to promote the project. Bounties are marketing strategies that give community participants coins/tokens in exchange for fulfilling specific predetermined tasks. Most commonly carried out during a startup’s inception, bounties can also occur at a later time in a project’s development. Crypto bounties are used to reward social media promotion campaigns, content creation campaigns, translation campaigns, as well as bug auditing, among other tasks. Typically paid out in the native coin of a network at a fixed, but regressive rate, block rewards are often the only source of new currency creation. They provide a key element of the incentive structure that keeps blockchain networks operating and secure. In Proof-of-Work blockchains like Bitcoin, block validation and block rewards are the remit of miners. For blockchains that utilized Proof-of-Stake consensus models , the block reward is paid to those that stake the native network cryptocurrency. Bitcoin Core is the main implementation of the software that allows users to interact with the Bitcoin blockchain. Bitcoin Core was initially created by Satoshi Nakamoto, but is not owned by any single entity, business, or organization. Nevertheless, it is updated, maintained, and reviewed by a global community of software engineers and computer scientists. By running the Bitcoin Core code, a user acts as a node on the network that can independently verify both the validity of block creation on the network and the transactions sent by network users. A beta version is a test version of a software product that is still undergoing development.

The Huobi Ecochain blockchain is the proprietary blockchain created by the Huobi Group and its main underlying cryptocurrency exchange Huobi Global. It is characterized by its cost-efficiency, extremely fast transaction times, and Ethereum Virtual Machine -compatible architecture allowing developers to deploy Solidity-based smart contracts on the protocol. Huobi Ecochain is designed mainly to transfer tokenized assets between different decentralized applications and the various services offered by its region-specific Huobi exchange platforms. Huobi Ecochain provides the technical infrastructure needed to operate various centralized finance and decentralized finance systems for both retail and institutional investors across the globe. Staking is the process through which a blockchain network user ‘stakes’ or locks their cryptocurrency assets on a network as part of the consensus mechanism, thus ensuring the security and functionality of the chain. Staked assets are usually held in a validator node or crypto wallet, and in order to encourage staking most projects reward the holders of staked tokens/coins with annualized financial returns, which are typically paid out on a regular basis. Staking is a core feature of Proof-of-Stake blockchain protocols, and each blockchain project which incorporates a staking feature has its own policies for staking requirements and withdrawal restrictions. Middleware is a component of a computer system or network that exists in the middle of the system, often to add to the functionality of the entire platform. In a blockchain context, middleware is made up of various systems that help decentralized applications expand their utility. In blockchain, examples of middleware include smart contracts, oracles, databases, digital identities, file storage, and various connectivity devices. The service layer is also made up of application programming interfaces , multi-signature technology, digital assets, blockchain governance systems, and other components. The Fair Sequencing Service is a mechanism developed by the Chainlink data oracle platform that allows decentralized finance systems to reduce transaction ordering problems and costs. Chainlink’s FSS stands to potentially further decentralize mining and transaction ordering in blockchain networks. Ethereum launched in 2015 as a decentralized, blockchain-based global supercomputer to serve as the foundation for an ecosystem of interoperable, decentralized applications powered by token economies and smart contracts. Assets and applications designed on Ethereum are built with self-executing smart contracts that remove the need for an intermediary. The network is fueled by its native cryptocurrency ether , which is used to pay network transaction fees. Open source, programmable, private, and censorship resistant, Ethereum forms the backbone of a decentralized internet, which has already spawned innovations like Initial Coin Offerings , stablecoins, and decentralized finance applications. The settlement layer on a blockchain network is the portion of the protocol used to settle financial transactions through smart contracts. Settlement via smart contract technology is designed to remove or reduce the role of third-party intermediaries, and thus facilitate a direct and trustless exchange between the user and the protocol itself. Automated clearing and settlement on a blockchain network typically take place via an automated market maker . With the increased popularity of crypto derivatives and futures markets, investing in blockchain-based derivatives is greatly aided by the ability to execute various types of financial transactions using a settlement layer. By being programmable, a blockchain network allows for the creation and automation of various mechanisms via smart contract technology and other similar methodologies. The ERC-20 standard outlines the common set of criteria and technical specifications an Ethereum token must follow to function optimally and interoperably on the Ethereum blockchain. It enables the creation of tokenized assets that can be bought, sold, and exchanged alongside cryptocurrencies like bitcoin and ether . The ERC-20 standard utilizes smart contracts to issue tokens that can be exchanged on the Ethereum network as well as used interoperably between Ethereum-based decentralized applications . It is the most commonly used Ethereum token standard, and has been used to create many notable digital assets. Examples of intangible assets include intellectual property rights, computer software, design patents, medical data, and contractual agreements such as a land title transfer or mortgage, among others. As they relate to blockchain, intangible assets include decentralized identities , smart contracts, decentralized oracles, databases, application programming interfaces , software development kits , and more. The classification of cryptocurrencies and non-fungible tokens is ambiguous because they can be stored in a digital wallet or crypto exchange and have characteristics that are both tangible and intangible. Collateral tokens are tokens employed for various blockchain use cases, acting as a collateralization method for users of the financial services provided by a blockchain network. This can include yield farming, borrowing, staking, lending, and other decentralized finance mechanisms.

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Equihash is an architecturally sound Proof-of-Work cryptocurrency mining — or hashing — algorithm. The framework is designed to be application-specific integrated circuit -resistant and highly scalable. It is also designed to remove the centralization of large corporations operating cryptocurrency mining hardware. The algorithm was created by Alex Biryukov, Dmitry Khovratovich, and other cryptographers at the University of Luxembourg prior to its mainstream introduction in 2016. The EOSIO Contract Development Toolkit (EOS.CDT) is a specialized WASM ToolChain and set of tools designed to build, create, modify, and utilize smart contracts within the EOSIO ecosystem. Founded by faculty and alumni from Stanford, Enya has contributed to several open-source and blockchain projects, including the Ethereum-based Layer-2 solutions Boba Network and OMG Foundation . Email spoofing is the act of creating and sending email messages with a forged sender address, typically with the intent to compromise the recipient. Since most core email protocols do not have any authentication mechanisms, email spoofing continues to be a widely used form of online fraud. There are numerous types of e-tailing including business-to-business and business-to-consumer sales of products and services. E-tailing requires companies to tailor their business models to capture internet sales, which can include building out new distribution channels and new technical infrastructure. Introduced in Theta’s 2.0 mainnet launch, Edge Nodes allow users to transcode and relay video content as well as share excess bandwidth/processing power across the network without the need for centralized servers. This Edge Node network forms the community-driven core of Theta’s Edgecast platform, which underpins the network’s peer-to-peer streaming dApps. Edge Node operators receive THETA token rewards in exchange for contributing to Theta’s global content-sharing ecosystem. A drawdown is a metric used to classify the decline in financial markets during a certain period. For example, if a specific market or stock drops from an initial position of $100,000 to $60,000, then rallies back above the initial position, the drawdown would be 40%. Market drawdowns are important to consider when a trader or fund manager is managing a large number of assets in an investment portfolio or fund. A drawdown is generally not considered a loss, but merely represents an asset’s movement from its peak to trough . A Domain Name Service is a decentralized, hierarchical naming system for network infrastructure, computers, and other similar resources that are connected to the internet or a private network. A DNS is generally used to translate more common domain names to the numerical IP addresses used to locate and identify specific devices and computer services within their underlying network protocols. By providing a globally distributed directory for domain names, the DNS system has been a pivotal component of the internet’s infrastructure since 1985. In an investment context, divergence is when two data points go in opposite directions when charting technical analysis, such as when the current price of an asset rises, and its relative strength index drops. The opposite of divergence is convergence, where two technical indicators rise or drop in the same direction. Divergence can also refer to a process whereby the price of a futures contract drifts farther away from the spot price of an underlying commodity as the delivery date of the contract expires. The NEO blockchain uses a highly advanced framework (dBFT 2.0) similar to Proof-of-Stake called Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance or dBFT. NEO’s dBFT 2.0 solves several inefficiencies that the first version of dBFT struggled with. DBFT 1.0 was sometimes susceptible to a single block fork, meaning that messaging problems between system nodes could often occur, resulting in network inefficiencies. To fix this problem, dBFT 2.0 changed the messaging request system that allows nodes to communicate with each other, adding the Recovery Message option. This option helps the network’s main Consensus Nodes to recover faster in the event of messaging problems, and to thus maintain consensus more effectively. Data scraping, also known as web scraping, refers to methods with which computer programs extract data from websites for use in local databases or other applications. Data scraping is most commonly used to gather content, prices, or contact information from online sources. When users deposit a cryptocurrency using the Compound protocol, they receive cTokens which represent the initial deposit plus accrued interest. For example, lending DAI to Compound gives the lender cDAI, which automatically earns interest for the cDAI holder. At any time, cDAI can be returned to Compound in exchange for the original DAI plus the accumulated interest.

Tokens are the primary means of transferring and storing value on a blockchain network — most often Ethereum. Tokens can also be designed to be either fungible or non-fungible, depending on a network’s specific needs. The protocol layer is made up of the underlying blockchain consensus mechanism and nodes which make up the foundation of the entire blockchain. This layer can also include different types of external Layer-2 blockchain systems such as sidechains, as well as virtual machines. More commonly, the protocol layer refers to the underlying architecture that all Layer-1 blockchain networks are made up of. The protocol layer is composed of addresses that identify specific nodes, error reporting, interface identification systems, network synchronization and state changes, and the sending, receiving, and processing of network transactions. A deposit contract is a smart contract that allows users to deposit cryptocurrency into a blockchain protocol, often via a validator node. This secure scaling solution increases transactional throughput while also enhancing protocol privacy. Sometimes used in unison with decentralized exchange protocols, implementing zk-Rollups on some blockchains can lead to lower transaction fees, improved liquidity, enhanced non-custodial crypto ownership, and more. It refers to itself as “a decentralized protocol for seamless access to asset liquidity on Terra.” The system allows users to exchange and swap native Terra and CW20 tokens directly from their Terra Station wallet using a web extension. All of Terra’s fiat-based stablecoins, Mirror Protocol’s synthetic mAssets, and other related Terra assets can be traded and exchanged on Terraswap. A sidechain is an external secondary blockchain protocol that is connected to a primary blockchain network . Sidechains are typically designed to allow for the transfer of data and value between themselves and the mainchain, and oftentimes use a different consensus mechanism than the mainchain. As a result, sidechains can allow for a higher degree of flexibility and scalability, given that systems with a significant sidechain interoperability component are often designed to cater to a broader range of enterprise and individual users. For example, some sidechain solutions allow for the transfer of assets back and forth between multiple protocols like Ethereum and Bitcoin. Other examples of sidechain capabilities include enhancements used for Layer-2 scaling solutions to increase the transaction speeds of the mainchain. The service layer, sometimes known as middleware or the tooling layer, is the portion of the software stack that computing systems utilize to support the functionality of the application layer. In blockchain specifically, the service layer is generally made up of smart contracts, application programming interfaces , software development kits , decentralized oracles, databases, digital identities, and more. Without the service layer, the application layer and the network layer would be unable to interact with each other, rendering the system useless. Ride is a functional programming language built to develop decentralized applications and smart contracts on the Waves platform. Ride was constructed to address many of the most prominent shortcomings of other smart contract programming languages. To help facilitate the smart contract development process, Ride uses three main types of scripts to create different types of smart contracts including dApp scripts, account scripts, and asset scripts. Through Ride, accounts with scripts assigned to them become dApps or smart accounts while an asset with a script becomes a smart asset. This process differs from the development process often used with traditional programming languages like JavaScript, C, C++, and others. OKEx Chain is the proprietary blockchain designed by the OKEx cryptocurrency exchange for building blockchain-based trading architecture.


The BitLicense is a business license for virtual currency activity that crypto enterprises must obtain before operating in the state of New York. BitLicenses are issued by the New York Department of Financial Services , and primarily regulate the commercial receipt, storage, and transfer of digital assets. Only 25 have been granted as of 2020, while recipients include Circle, Coinbase, Robinhood, and Square. Businesses chartered under New York banking law such as Gemini are not required to hold BitLicenses. Bitcoin Improvement Proposal 38 enabled wallet holders to encrypt Bitcoin private keys with a password to offer an extra layer of protection. An encrypted private key requires that a user hold both the private key and the password in order to access wallet funds. This makes private key management a critically important step, where BIP 38 is commonly used for paper wallets and other analog devices for security purposes.

DRG is designed to be scalable, verifiable, unchangeable, and unpredictable (i.e. random). A data access layer is generally considered the main component of the back-end of a computer system or network. It is a layer within a computer program that allows programs to access data and persistent storage. Applications that make use of DALs leverage a database server, or can operate without one. DALs support several database formats, but must be able to communicate with different data requests within a system. CryptoPunks are one of the most well-known and highly valued collections of non-fungible tokens in the crypto industry. CryptoPunks were released in 2017 on the Ethereum blockchain and are characterized by the cyberpunk and London punk genres. After several years of maturation, many CryptoPunks have been auctioned off for millions of dollars. Apart from a highly sought-after reputation, the collection is verifiably limited to 10,000 punks. CryptoPunks were one of the first ever tokenized collections that initiated the ERC-721 standard for NFTs. A crypto mining processor is a graphics processing unit designed specifically for crypto mining. These crypto-specific graphics cards typically include better hashing performance over comparable GPUs since they are optimized to mine cryptocurrencies. In addition, these cards usually can’t be used for other purposes as they lack the external connections needed for streaming video to a monitor. Counterparty is a protocol that is designed to allow the issuance of tokens on the Bitcoin blockchain. A continuous order book is a listing of parties interested in buying or selling an asset on a market. The list specifies the quantities and prices each buyer or seller is willing to accept for an exchange. A matching engine is concurrently used to pair the buyers and sellers, while the order book is updated in real time. As it relates to blockchain and crypto, a confirmation is a measurement of how many blocks have been finalized since a transaction was sent from one address to another. As more confirmations take place, the security of the transaction increases until all block confirmations have been finalized and permanently become part of the ledger. The number of confirmations needed to successfully finalize a transaction may vary because different protocols operate differently. On the Maker platform, a collateralized debt position is created when a borrower provides cryptocurrency as collateral in order to mint or borrow the DAI stablecoin. The value of the collateral in a CDP must always remain above a certain minimum requirement or else risk liquidation. In the event of liquidation, the collateral in the CDP is sold in order to repay a portion of the DAI debt. CoinJoin was originally developed as a privacy tool for concealing a user’s Bitcoin transactions. “CoinJoining” involves many users combining their funds into one large transaction, which is then sent back to them in a way that hides their transaction paths. CoinJoin is a non-custodial solution, which means users never lose control of their funds during the CoinJoining process. Different versions and variations of CoinJoin can now be found on multiple protocols outside of Bitcoin. Typically, a specialized organization acts as an intermediary in the clearing process to both buyer and seller to ensure procedure and finalization. The interrelated processes of clearing and settlement are what make up the post-trade process. The Chicago-based exchange was founded in 1898 and is now one of the biggest global derivatives markets in the world. Changpeng Zhao is the founder and CEO of Binance, one of the world’s largest cryptocurrency exchanges. Zhao was raised in China and Vancouver, Canada, and later studied computer science at McGill University in Montreal. After graduating, CZ began working for the Tokyo Stock Exchange as a software developer and later worked for Bloomberg Tradebook in a similar role. Prior to founding Binance in 2017, CZ held several positions for blockchain enterprises such as the Chief Technology Officer at OKCoin.

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A protocol can also refer to a set of rules that define interactions on a blockchain network that involve consensus, network participation, and transaction validation. In order to mine or verify a new block, miners must provide cryptographic proof that they have access to a recall block, which is a block from earlier in the blockweave’s history. For this reason, Arweave’s consensus algorithm is called Proof of Access, and is a variation of a Proof-of-Work algorithm. PoA is intended to incentivize long-term data storage because miners must access older, random blocks from the blockweave’s history in order to mine new blocks and receive mining rewards. All members of custom subnets — or blockchains that are created on the Avalanche platform — must also be a member of the Primary Network which requires them to stake 2000 AVAX coins. A pre-sale is held by some blockchain enterprises after the private sale has been completed, but before the public sale, whereby a specific allocation of coins is sold to prospective investors. This pre-sale is often held to give institutional investors, and smaller investment funds that missed out on the private sale, a chance to contribute. Typically physical metal coins that have a private key hidden under a tamper-proof sticker or hologram, physical bitcoins can be purchased pre-loaded with cryptocurrency . The Casascius Coins were the first popular physical coin that was sold that held bitcoin . You can purchase other physical coins that support cryptocurrencies like litecoin and bitcoin cash . The physical exchange of these coins is a blockchain transaction because the recipient is now in possession of the hidden private key. Within the Stellar blockchain’s technical framework, a path payment refers to a payment that is sent in one currency and received in another .

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The application layer is considered the client-layer or front-end of the system, with the opposite end of the system known as the bank-end or data access layer . Anti-Money Laundering is a comprehensive set of processes, regulations, and rules that combat money laundering, terrorism funding, and financial crimes like cyber theft and fraud. AML procedures require financial firms to monitor transactions to ensure that funds are not part of criminal activities, circumventing tax laws, or violating any other regulations. Alpha Lending is a decentralized, permissionless pool-based lending and borrowing protocol that makes use of algorithmic autonomous interest rates. Designed to run on BNB Chain and Ethereum, Alpha Lending is designed to facilitate the use of cross-chain assets and to help maximize the return of investment for lenders and borrowers. The platform makes use of interest-bearing alTokens that represent the user’s share of their deposit . Lending pool contracts on Alpha help facilitate the use of deposits, withdrawals, repayments, liquidations, and assets that are borrowed by users on the platform. Alpha Homora is a service-based protocol built by Alpha Finance Labs designed to allow users to earn interest on their crypto deposits through standardized yield farming and leveraged derivative yield farming. Initially, Alpha Homora V1 is built for Ethereum and BNB Chain and allows users to participate as yield farmers, liquidity providers, ether and BNB lenders, bounty hunters, and liquidators. Alpha Homora V2, which will be built initially for Ethereum, hopes to expand these capabilities by allowing for leveraged yield farming and the simultaneous use of multiple assets. The account model is a blockchain architecture that features direct information and value transfer. Smart contract platforms such as Ethereum use the account model as opposed to the UTXO model used by the Bitcoin network, which limits the capabilities of smart contracts. One potential downside of the account model architecture is difficulty in scaling transactions per second . Tips on Wagering the Bonus Money, you’ll have access to the Pay by Phone option enabling you to make a fast deposit which will then be charged on your bill issued by your local cellular phone provider. Read the terms and conditions before you register at an online casino, there are many different types of tournaments. This app offers a lot of bonuses to all her users, where are online casinos licensed making additional treatment necessary. Aftershock slot machine trying to deposit a check from Mexico into my Bank of America account, leaving only a handful that still will give free slots bonuses. 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ASIC miners are expensive, specialized computer hardware that many believe make the mining process more profitable for industrial-scale operations and leave retail miners behind. Thus, X16R was designed by Ravencoin as a Proof-of-Work alternative that is more resistant to centralization. Tribute to Talk is a feature that blockchain-enabled messaging platform Status created in order to prevent malicious activity and spam from cluttering its network. Status users can set a Tribute-to-Talk requirement, which is the minimum amount of Status Network Token a non-whitelisted user needs to stake in order to send them a message. If the message recipient responds to the sender’s message, the sender’s staked SNT is sent to the recipient. If the sender’s message is ignored or rejected, the sender’s staked SNT is returned to them, and they will be unable to attempt to contact the recipient for a period of time. Trends are determined in large part by using technical charting analysis and trendlines that highlight specific price action that make up technical support and resistance levels. An uptrend occurs when the price makes higher swing highs, while a downtrend is characterized by price making lower swing lows. Trends may occur in crypto, stocks, bonds, derivatives, and any other type of market, even when measuring different types of data, such as the overall economic outlook for a specific geographical region during a certain time period. A ToolChain is a set of software programming tools designed to simplify complex software development tasks, or to help create specific types of software programs and applications. This general term should not be confused with VeChain’s ToolChain, which is a Blockchain-as-a-Service offering tailored for enterprise use. The DAO was a decentralized autonomous organization that launched in 2016 on the Ethereum blockchain. This hack is notable in the crypto space as it led to a schism within the Ethereum community that resulted in a hard fork of the Ethereum network that created two separate blockchains, Ethereum and Ethereum Classic .

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A tokenized stock is essentially a spot token that is backed by shares of a particular stock. Tokenized stocks provide the around-the-clock availability and permissionless nature of crypto to traditional stock markets. Tokenization allows these stocks to be available to additional markets and allows for the purchase of fractional shares. State Machine Replication is a general approach in distributed computing for building fault-tolerant systems. This is achieved through the replication of servers and organization of client exchanges with server replicas. SMR accomplishes this by deploying copies of a web service across a set of servers rather than just one. This approach can potentially increase a system’s performance and capacity since the replicas provide more resources to the service, while achieving operational fault tolerance through the elimination of a single point of failure. A social impact fund is an investment fund that is designed to benefit the environment, humanitarian and social issues, and other related industries. Investors who contribute to social impact funds value the commitment to enterprise social responsibility and the betterment of society as a whole. Socially Responsible Investing and Environmental, Social, and Governance Investing are two different types of impact investing that are often employed by social impact funds. More specifically, SMART Yield Bonds are tokenized tranches of debt-based derivatives designed to mitigate interest rate volatility. SKALE virtualized subnodes enable each SKALE Node Core to run multiple Elastic Sidechains simultaneously. In general, virtualized subnodes enable elastic provisioning of network resources according to each user’s requirements. SKALE is an Ethereum sidechain network that creates a high-throughput, low-latency, low-cost environment for decentralized app development. Short selling (also known as “going short” or “shorting”) is the practice of seeking to profit from the decrease in an asset’s price . If the price of the share goes down, they can be purchased at a discount and returned to the broker. The short seller can then pocket the difference between the purchase price and the price the stock was initially shorted — or sold — at. However, if the price of a shorted stock rises, the short seller is responsible for the difference and may incur financial losses. As it relates to peer-to-peer file sharing, seeding is the act of uploading previously downloaded content for others to download. A computer connected to a P2P network generally becomes a seed after it has a desired file; multiple seeds with the same file allow a user to download the file much faster than they would be able to from a single party. P2P file sharing via seeding first came to prominence with the sharing of mp3 music files in the late 1990’s — and has since expanded to include the sharing of video files, video games, and computer programs. Adhering to strong security guidelines is often critical to maintaining a well-functioning system with reduced susceptibility to data theft by malicious third-party attackers aiming to disrupt, destroy, or modify a computer system. A Secure Sockets Layer Certificate is a technological standard used to enable a secure connection between a web server and client on the internet. SSL certificates are installed on a web server and scramble transmitted data through encryption algorithms in order to prevent malicious actors from being able to access data as it moves from one system to another. A Transport Layer Security Certificate represents a recent, updated version of SSL with further enhanced security. Secret-sharing is a cryptographic technique employed in computing that is used to share highly-sensitive data in a way that cannot be compromised. Secret-sharing works by sending separate chunks of sensitive data to multiple parties, with the sensitive data only being deciphered when all separate parties who received a portion are united. Secret-sharing is one of numerous privacy-preserving techniques used in blockchain and other forms of computing. S&P Global Ratings is one of the largest credit rating agencies in the world and a subsidiary of S&P Global, which is best known for being the creator of the S&P 500 stock index. The purpose of S&P Global Ratings is to provide accurate data and information to potential market participants to measure the credit efficacy of enterprises, governments, financial entities, securities, and the overall financial sector. S&P Global Ratings works with numerous global financial regulators and the financial sector to provide detailed information to help sustain an equitable, transparent, forward-thinking global financial industry. The index was founded in and based in Britain but it is used to track the performance of the 3,000 largest publicly held U.S. stocks that make up 98% of the U.S. stock market. The Russell 3000 Index is made up of the large-cap Russell 1000 Index and the small-cap Russell 2000 index. The index launched on January 1st, 1984, and is maintained by FTSE Russell, a subsidiary of the London Stock Exchange Group . A risk curve is a visual depiction of the trade-off between the risk and return for an investment on a graph. Generally, the horizontal x-axis is a measurement of the risk level, while the vertical y-axis is a measurement of the expected return. The curve implies that lower-risk investments plotted to the left might generate a lesser expected return, and that riskier investments plotted to the right might generate a greater expected return.

Like a user experience , a proficient user interface should be user-friendly, simple, efficient, secure, and private. User interfaces can also include Human-Machine Interfaces that interact with physical input hardware such as a keyboard, mouse, or gaming controller, or with output hardware such as a computer monitor, speaker, or printer. TypeScript is a programming language that is a syntactical version of JavaScript that adds optional static typing to the language. TypeScript is maintained and designed by Microsoft and is built for the development of large-scale applications that compile to JavaScript for use with any browser, and any host, on any operating system . A Banker Trojan is a specific type of Trojan malware that is designed to gain unauthorized access to confidential information or assets stored in online banking systems. The Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) is an organized suite of communication protocols that is used to connect network devices over the internet and transmit data through these connections. The internet as we know it was largely designed and built upon TCP/IP, although this set of protocols can also be similarly used as a communications protocol within a private computer network. A Sybil attack is an online security breach where an attacker can create multiple fake identities that can act as nodes in order to flood a target network with the intent of disrupting it or taking it over. Sybil attacks can be especially dangerous when directed at systems in which new nodes are created and synced with relative ease. A stalling delay is a coded, time-based technique that certain types of malware use to bypass a network’s cybersecurity defenses. After infecting a target system, malware with a stalling delay mechanism typically executes a series of useless, innocuous CPU cycles in order to delay the execution of its actual malicious code until the target network is no longer on alert.

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This direct access is usually only available to companies, or buy-side firms, that fulfill certain criteria and is realized through third parties such as investment banks, or sell-side firms. DMA is generally fulfilled by making use of algorithmic electronic trading software to fulfill certain order types and investment strategies. The Digital Signature Algorithm is a specialized standardization for the creation of digital signatures that are used within public-key cryptography systems such as blockchains or related computing infrastructure. Federal Information Processing Standard in 1991 in conjunction with the National Institute of Standards and Technology . Upon its creation, the DSA standard patent was made available for global use, but it is anticipated that an upcoming update to the standardization may render it deprecated and unusable. The Depth-Limited Search algorithm is a specialized consensus algorithm used within the Cosmos blockchain network. It is designed to solve the specific technical problem of the infinite path challenge as it relates to uninformed search algorithms. Delegated Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the consensus method that was created by NEO to be a more advanced version of Proof of Stake . The consensus mechanism is similar to regular Byzantine Fault Tolerance except it employs a methodology whereby anyone can become a delegate that meets specific requirements. In this case, delegates are allowed to share and compare the proposals from other potential delegates.

Recapitalization sometimes occurs after a substantial drop in a company’s share price in order to minimize taxes, prevent bankruptcy, or to allow investors to sell their shares and exit the investment. In cryptocurrency, a rebase currency, or price-elastic currency, is constructed in a way that allows its circulating supply to increase or decrease automatically according to the coin’s price fluctuations. Rebase currencies are similar to stablecoins in the sense that both have a rebalancing mechanism, although they function differently. A real estate investment trust is defined as a company that owns, operates, or finances income-generating real estate. REITs are generally modeled after mutual funds and pool the capital of numerous investors together, so a purchaser is not required to individually own property to potentially receive financial rewards. Random-access memory is a type of computer memory that can be read or changed in any order to store specific working data and machine code. RAM can be read or written in nearly the same amount of time regardless of the physical location of the data within the memory. Public-key cryptography is a specialized cryptographic system that utilizes pairs of lengthy alphanumeric keys that only function when used in tandem. The generation of these keys is made possible by the usage of cryptographic algorithms based on mathematical problems to produce a one-way function. Politeia is an off-chain, structured governance system implemented by Decred with the goal of fostering an environment of open communication. Politeia is designed to encourage users to share ideas and provide a framework for voting on implementing them. A pattern day trader is a regulatory classification for a trader who executes more than four margin trades per day during five consecutive business days. The PDT designation places specific limits (to limit excessive risk and detrimental habit-based trading) on trading for a trader and can result in an exchange banning a trader for up to 90 days in order to remain compliant with NYSE regulations. In 2021, NEM released Symbol, a new and separate blockchain protocol that builds upon the strengths of the original NEM chain while incorporating new features. More Viable Plasma is a variation of Plasma, a Layer-2 Ethereum scaling technology introduced by Vitalik Buterin and Joseph Poon. MoreVP bundles transactions together and verifies them off of the blockchain before returning them in a batch to be verified by Ethereum.


Phase 0 was successfully deployed in December 2020 with the launch of the Beacon Chain upgrade. Named after the pseudonymous individual or group that created Bitcoin, satoshis, or “sats,” are the smallest divisible unit of the bitcoin cryptocurrency. Like all cryptocurrencies, bitcoin is divisible and there are 100 million satoshis in one bitcoin. Many crypto enthusiasts track the price fluctuations of their respective cryptocurrencies in terms of sats rather than fiat currencies, which reflects their skepticism of the traditional financial system. RingCTs drastically improve the unlinkability and untraceability of transactions within the Monero network by allowing for ring outputs of various transaction sizes, without compromising the anonymity of the transaction. This function was added to Monero in January of 2017 and made mandatory on the network in September 2017.

Ponzi schemes tend to eventually bottom out when the flood of investment capital from new investors starts to die off. This occurs when the algorithmic trading system is too complex for the computer to handle it, resulting in an overloaded computational system. An Optimistic Rollup is a type of Layer-2 scaling solution that runs on top of the Ethereum network. Department of the Treasury, the Office of Foreign Asset Control is responsible for enforcing economic and trade sanctions that are in the interests of U.S. foreign policy and national security. These targets include foreign regimes, terrorists, drug traffickers, and others engaged in illegal activities. The OFAC also has the power to freeze assets, impose fines, and ban entities from operating within the U.S. Network congestion occurs when the speed or quality of a network’s service is reduced due to an overwhelming volume of transactions. Congestion can occur when a network experiences an unusual spike in activity that surpasses the volume the network was designed to handle, or in the event of certain malicious attacks such as a Distributed Denial-of-Service attack. In the context of the Orchid protocol, ‘hops’ refer to the way data is routed, specifically the encryption and masking of web traffic by a virtual private network . Mt. Gox was a centralized cryptocurrency exchange that lost more than 700,000 bitcoin in a 2014 hack. Created by Jed McCaleb in 2010, Mt. Gox was sold to Mark Karpeles in 2011 who operated it from Japan. The moving average convergence divergence is a trading indicator used in technical analysis that utilizes moving averages to analyze the momentum of an asset.

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The platform offers a broad array of digital art and collectible NFTs, and provides a fiat on-ramp, therefore enabling users to obtain NFTs with fiat as well as cryptocurrencies. Network latency, or network lag, is the time it takes for data to be transferred from its source to its destination. Low network latency is a critical characteristic of a high-performance blockchain or computer network because the faster the network is able to process data, the more suitable it is for large-scale enterprise use. Network latency has a direct relationship to transaction throughput and the number of transactions per second a computer network can perform. Net interest income is a financial metric used to measure the difference between revenue generated and interest paid on different types of assets such as securities, loans, mortgages, and other financial instruments. NII is dependent on several factors including the interest rate and whether the interest rate is fixed or variable. Banks and other financial institutions typically utilize the net interest rate to determine the difference between liabilities and interest-bearing assets so they know the income they have generated on a particular investment or loan. A nested blockchain is a decentralized network that utilizes a main blockchain to set parameters for the broader network, while executions are undertaken on an interconnected web of secondary chains. Multiple blockchain levels are built on this mainchain, with these levels using a parent-child connection. The parent chain delegates work to child chains that send it back to the parent after completion. The underlying base blockchain does not take part in network functions unless dispute resolution is necessary. The distribution of work under this model reduces the processing burden on the mainchain to improve scalability. Its privacy features include anonymizing transaction amounts and the addresses of transacting parties. A mining reward, also referred to as a block reward, are native assets of a network that miners receive for successfully mining blocks of transactions. A mining algorithm is typically a cryptographic puzzle that requires significant computational power to solve. Popular blockchain mining algorithms include secure hash algorithms SHA-256 and SHA-3 — as well as Ethash, Scrypt, and Equihash. Mimblewimble is a privacy-focused blockchain design first proposed in 2019 by the pseudonymous Tom Elvis Jedusor. Mimblewimble’s novel design proposes a way to maintain transaction data privacy while executing transaction verification that does not require network nodes to store the entire history of the blockchain. A Merkle tree is a data structure composed of data-converting hashes that is utilized by blockchains for the secure verification of information. A Merkle tree summarizes all the transactions in a block by producing a digital fingerprint (i.e., a single hash) of the entire set of transactions. Rebranded as Omni in 2015, Mastercoin was designed to enable the issuance of new currencies, assets, and tokens on top of the Bitcoin blockchain. Low-level programming languages are programming languages that have very little abstraction of programming concepts, which means they tend to be more complex and less efficient than high-level programming languages. They are written similarly to a processor’s instructions and often take much longer to execute when compared to high-level programming systems because of their complexity. Other characteristics of low-level programming languages include memory efficiency, lack of portability , and higher difficulty for debugging and maintenance. Loom is an Ethereum-based platform that was initially focused on providing scalability for decentralized applications . It later pivoted to focus on enterprise blockchain applications for industries such as healthcare. Litecoin was created by forking Bitcoin’s code and retains many characteristics of Bitcoin, while being optimized for lower cost transactions. It is considered to be the first altcoin, and was the second cryptocurrency to be widely accommodated on digital currency exchanges and accepted in the wider economy. In regards to an asset, liquidity refers to the ability to exchange an asset without substantially shifting its price in the process, and the ease with which an asset can be converted to cash. Leveraged tokens on the FTX crypto exchange allow traders to put leveraged positions without trading on margin. By purchasing leveraged tokens with USD, traders can get more market exposure without having to micromanage their margin or collateral. BULL tokens track an underlying asset with approximately triple the returns and BEAR tokens can do the same with approximately triple the returns when the asset’s value moves downward.

  • The MTRA works on an international, national, and state level to provide a transparent system for the exchange of money for users in the United States and around the world, though much of its focus is on the United States.
  • Queries can be entered into many types of computing platforms or databases, and are used both publicly and privately by retail users, enterprises, governments, and other constituents.
  • The DASH blockchain features a masternode system referred to as Proof of Service on account of the critical services that masternodes provide to the DASH network.
  • A coin mixer is a software or service that mixes the cryptocurrencies of many different users to preserve privacy and anonymity despite the public ledger of blockchain networks.
  • This is done by monitoring suspicious bank and business transactions — and other activities that may be related to money laundering.
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OLG shall use reasonable efforts to notify a Player if any Error has adversely impacted the Player, or if the correction of any Error adversely impacts the Player. OLG will hold a Player’s monies that are deposited with OLG for purposes of funding the notional balance of a Player Account in a bank account or escrow account as trustee for the Player . For the avoidance of doubt, a Player Account is not a bank account and, therefore, is not insured, guaranteed, sponsored or otherwise protected by any deposit or banking insurance system. This Player Agreement – Terms and Conditions of Use for contains the terms and conditions that govern the use of OLG’s online gaming platform. By checking the “accept“ box, an Intending Player, Prospective Player, or a Player is confirming that they understand and agree to be bound by the terms and conditions of this Agreement. Its format is derived from a currency code standard created by the International Organization for Standardization which stipulates that supranational currency codes should begin with ‘X’. Wrapped ether (wETH, also stylized “WETH”) is an ERC-20 representation of ether , which allows it to be directly traded with other ERC-20 tokens, something not possible with unwrapped ETH. To create wETH, you send ETH to a smart contract, which locks up the ETH and returns wETH. This wETH can be changed back to ETH again by sending the wETH back to the smart contract. The Nano protocol can also be leveraged by network participants who make use of the WeNano mobile app. WeNano is a social wallet that facilitates payments and donations to other community members and through the Nano ‘spots’ feature that makes use of GPS technology. Voice Over Internet Protocol , sometimes known as IP telephony, is a technology that is used to carry out voice communication, video calling, and video conferencing over the internet. VOIP works by sending and receiving voice and video calling data between two or more IP addresses. VOIP was made famous by Skype, Zoom, and several other large multinational enterprises over the last 30 years. VOIP has changed the way many businesses communicate because it is often free or very cheap to use compared to long-distance phone calls. VOIP began as a computer-to-computer service but recently expanded to mobile-to-mobile device calling. The Financial Services Committee also oversees the Securities and Exchange Commission , the Federal Reserve, and the United States Department of the Treasury, among other financial services regulators in the U.S. Turing complete is defined as a system of data-manipulation rules, such as a computer’s programming language or instruction set, that is computationally universal. All computer programming languages are ‘turing complete,’ meaning that they can easily be used and communicate with other similar programming languages or related systems with minimal likelihood of encountering major problems. The concept was first introduced by English computer scientist and mathematician Alan Turing.

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